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Read preview. Such compact organization bears the risk of fragmentation when applied to a lengthy work such as Mardi , but with Redburn and White Jacket, Melville turned the short chapter into a concentrated narrative. Some chapters of Moby-Dick are no more than two pages in standard editions, and an extreme example is Chapter , consisting of a single paragraph of 36 words including the thrice-repeated "Um, um, um. As satirical elements were introduced, the chapter arrangement restores "some degree of organization and pace from the chaos".
Newton Arvin points out that only superficially the books after Mardi seem as if Melville's writing went back to the vein of his first two books. In reality, his movement "was not a retrograde but a spiral one", and while Redburn and White-Jacket may lack the spontaneous, youthful charm of his first two books, they are "denser in substance, richer in feeling, tauter, more complex, more connotative in texture and imagery". Melville's early works were "increasingly baroque"  in style, and with Moby-Dick Melville's vocabulary had grown superabundant.
Bezanson calls it an "immensely varied style". First, the exaggerated repetition of words, as in the series "pitiable," "pity," "pitied," and "piteous" Ch. A second typical device is the use of unusual adjective-noun combinations, as in "concentrating brow" and "immaculate manliness" Ch. After his use of hyphenated compounds in Pierre , Melville's writing gives Berthoff the impression of becoming less exploratory and less provocative in his choices of words and phrases.
Instead of providing a lead "into possible meanings and openings-out of the material in hand,"  the vocabulary now served "to crystallize governing impressions,"  the diction no longer attracted attention to itself, except as an effort at exact definition. The language, Berthoff continues, reflects a "controlling intelligence, of right judgment and completed understanding". Melville's paragraphing in his best work Berthoff considers to be the virtuous result of "compactness of form and free assembling of unanticipated further data", such as when the mysterious sperm whale is compared with Exodus's invisibility of God's face in the final paragraph of Chapter 86 "The Tail".
The use of similar technique in Billy Budd contributes in large part, Berthoff says, to its "remarkable narrative economy". In Nathalia Wright's view, Melville's sentences generally have a looseness of structure, easy to use for devices as catalogue and allusion, parallel and refrain, proverb and allegory. The length of his clauses may vary greatly, but the "torterous" writing in Pierre and The Confidence-Man is there to convey feeling, not thought. Unlike Henry James , who was an innovator of sentence ordering to render the subtlest nuances in thought, Melville made few such innovations.
His domain is the mainstream of English prose, with its rhythm and simplicity influenced by the King James Bible.
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His three most important sources, in order, are the Bible, Shakespeare, and Milton. First, far more unmarked than acknowledged quotations occur, some favorites even numerous times throughout his whole body of work, taking on the nature of refrains. Examples of this idiom are the injunctions to be 'as wise as serpents and as harmless as doves,' 'death on a pale horse,' 'the man of sorrows', the 'many mansions of heaven;' proverbs 'as the hairs on our heads are numbered,' 'pride goes before a fall,' 'the wages of sin is death;' adverbs and pronouns as 'verily, whoso, forasmuch as; phrases as come to pass, children's children, the fat of the land, vanity of vanities, outer darkness, the apple of his eye, Ancient of Days, the rose of Sharon.
Redburn's "Thou shalt not lay stripes upon these Roman citizens" makes use of language of the Ten Commandments in Ex. A passage from Redburn shows how all these different ways of alluding interlock and result in a fabric texture of Biblical language, though there is very little direct quotation:. In addition to this, Melville successfully imitates three Biblical strains: he sustains the apocalyptic for a whole chapter of Mardi; the prophetic strain is expressed in Moby-Dick , most notably in Father Mapple 's sermon; and the tradition of the Psalms is imitated at length in The Confidence-Man.
Melville owned an edition of Shakespeare's works by , and his reading of it greatly influenced the style of his next book, Moby-Dick The critic F. Matthiessen found that the language of Shakespeare far surpasses other influences upon the book, in that it inspired Melville to discover his own full strength. The "mere sounds, full of Leviathanism, but signifying nothing" at the end of "Cetology" Ch.
Melville's mastering of Shakespeare, Matthiessen finds, supplied him with verbal resources that enabled him to create dramatic language through three essential techniques. First, the use of verbs of action creates a sense of movement and meaning. The effective tension caused by the contrast of "thou launchest navies of full-freighted worlds" and "there's that in here that still remains indifferent" in "The Candles" Ch.
Third, Melville employed the device of making one part of speech act as another — for example, 'earthquake' as an adjective, or turning an adjective into a noun, as in "placeless". Melville's style, in Nathalia Wright's analysis, seamlessly flows over into theme, because all these borrowings have an artistic purpose, which is to suggest an appearance "larger and more significant than life" for characters and themes that are in fact unremarkable. By , all of his books were out of print. The "Melville Revival" of the late s and s brought about a reassessment of his work.
The centennial of his birth was in Carl Van Doren 's article on Melville in a standard history of American literature was the start of renewed appreciation. Van Doren also encouraged Raymond Weaver , who wrote the author's first full-length biography, Herman Melville: Mariner and Mystic Discovering the unfinished manuscript of Billy Budd , among papers shown to him by Melville's granddaughter, Weaver edited it and published it in a new collected edition of Melville's works.
Starting in the mids, the Yale University scholar Stanley Thomas Williams supervised more than a dozen dissertations on Melville that were eventually published as books. Where the first wave of Melville scholars focused on psychology, Williams' students were prominent in establishing Melville Studies as an academic field concerned with texts and manuscripts, tracing Melville's influences and borrowings even plagiarism , and exploring archives and local publications.
Sparked by Leyda, the second phase of the Melville Revival emphasized research rather than accepting Melville's early books as reliable accounts. The postwar scholars tended to think that Weaver, Harvard psychologist Henry Murray , and Mumford favored Freudian interpretations which read Melville's fiction too literally as autobiography; exaggerated his suffering in the family; and inferred a homosexual attachment to Hawthorne. They saw a different arc to Melville's writing career.
The first biographers saw a tragic withdrawal after the cold critical reception for his prose works and largely dismissed his poetry. A new view emerged of Melville's turn to poetry as a conscious choice that placed him among the most important American poets. Other post-war studies, however, continued the broad imaginative and interpretive style.
In the s, Northwestern University Press , in alliance with the Newberry Library and the Modern Language Association , organized a project to edit and published reliable critical texts of Melville's complete works, including unpublished poems, journals, and correspondence.
The aim of the editors was to present a text "as close as possible to the author's intention as surviving evidence permits". The volumes have extensive appendices, including textual variants from each of the editions published in Melville's lifetime, an historical note on the publishing history and critical reception, and related documents. In many cases, it was not possible to establish a "definitive text", but the edition supplies all evidence available at the time.
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Because the texts were prepared with financial support from the United States Department of Education, no royalties are charged, and they have been widely reprinted. In , The Melville Society was founded, a non-profit organisation dedicated to the study of Melville's life and works. Between and it published issues of Melville Society Extracts, which are now freely available on the society's website.
Melville did not publish poetry until late in life, and his reputation as a poet was not high until late in the 20th century. Melville, says recent literary critic Lawrence Buell, "is justly said to be nineteenth-century America's leading poet after Whitman and Dickinson , yet his poetry remains largely unread even by many Melvillians". True, Buell concedes, even more than most Victorian poets, Melville turned to poetry as an "instrument of meditation rather than for the sake of melody or linguistic play".
It is also true that he turned from fiction to poetry late in life.
Yet he wrote twice as much poetry as Dickinson and probably as many lines as Whitman, and he wrote distinguished poetry for a quarter of a century, twice as long as his career publishing prose narratives. The three novels of the s which Melville worked on most seriously to present his philosophical explorations, Moby-Dick , Pierre , and The Confidence Man , seem to make the step to philosophical poetry a natural one rather than simply a consequence of commercial failure. In , the Melville scholar Elizabeth Renker wrote "a sea change in the reception of the poems is incipient".
Warren issued a selection of Melville's poetry prefaced by an admiring critical essay.
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The poetry critic Helen Vendler remarked of Clarel : "What it cost Melville to write this poem makes us pause, reading it. Alone, it is enough to win him, as a poet, what he called 'the belated funeral flower of fame. Melville's writings did not attract the attention of women's studies scholars of the s and s, though his preference for sea-going tales that involved almost only males has been of interest to scholars in men's studies and especially gay and queer studies.
For example, Alvin Sandberg claimed that the short story " The Paradise of Bachelors and the Tartarus of Maids " offers "an exploration of impotency, a portrayal of a man retreating to an all-male childhood to avoid confrontation with sexual manhood," from which the narrator engages in "congenial" digressions in heterogeneity. David Harley Serlin observes in the second half of Melville's diptych, "The Tartarus of Maids", the narrator gives voice to the oppressed women he observes:. As other scholars have noted, the "slave" image here has two clear connotations.
One describes the exploitation of the women's physical labor, and the other describes the exploitation of the women's reproductive organs.